In order to calculate the energy requirements of children over 1 year of age from measurements of energy expenditure, both the time and cost of all types of physical activity need to be known. The approach is basically the same as for adults. A reasonable judgement must lead to estimates that are similar to values established independently, such as the intakes of healthy breast-fed children. Since reliable estimates of the maintenance requirement have now been obtained from N-balance measurements, calculation from the BMR would only be useful to provide values for the total requirement. Long-term studies during which children grow normally would clearly inspire much greater confidence regarding the adequacy of the diets fed. The margin of safety is obviously less for children than for adults, and the range of national diets needs to be examined with respect to amino acid content as well as digestibility, before concluding that no further adjustment for these factors is needed. For example, in year-old boys, weight may vary from 28 kg 3rd centile to 59 kg 97th centile , and height from 1. As with adults, and with the same limitations, the maintenance requirements can in principle be estimated from measurements of nitrogen balance at several levels of intake.
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