Causal effect estimates based on Mendelian randomization are plotted against the metabolite associations with observed BMI based a cross-sectional study design. Mendelian randomization framework for estimating causal effects of BMI on the systemic metabolite profile. Correspondence between longitudinal associations of 6-y change in BMI with change in metabolites and cross-sectional associations. All association magnitudes in absolute concentration units and exact p -values are listed in Table S3. Characteristics of the study populations. Genetic variants included in gene score for elevated BMI and pleiotropy assessment. Cross-sectional associations of BMI with systemic metabolites for 6, women red and 6, men blue. Correspondence between causal effect estimates and cross-sectional associations of BMI with systemic metabolites. The principles of Mendelian randomization and core assumptions for the genetic instrument to be valid are detailed in Box 1.
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