Weber TE, Bosworth BG: Effects of 28 day exposure to cold temperature or feed restriction on growth, body composition, and expression of genes related to muscle growth and metabolism in channel catfish. Underlying assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variance were evaluated with diagnostic plots. Consequently, the EBV group effect was estimated separately using a linear mixed effects model incorporating random variation among families and fixed-effect differences between EBV groups. However, investment in somatic growth carries inherent metabolic costs and may be limited by energy investment towards maintenance, reproduction and activity, including differential osmoregulation costs between freshwater and saltwater environments [ 30 ]. The above REML model was fit separately for each treatment. There was no evidence of environmental effects, or impact of genotypic value, on the expression of IGF-1 Table 3 , Figure 2c. Abstract Background Quantitative reaction norm theory proposes that genotype-by-environment interaction GxE results from inter-individual differences of expression in adaptive suites of genes in distinct environments. We detected significant gene-by-environment interaction, supported by non-parallel reaction norms Figure 2 , for absolute growth Table 1 , level of gene transcription, as well as individual transcript efficiency for both GHR and IGF-1 genes Table 3 , Table 5. Future studies should emphasize a more complete analysis with a full range of physiological products of the growth pathway and associated members.
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